Hydrogen production from seawater
Above all, a sustainable energy economy must solve the problem of shortage of raw materials in order to ensure a reliable energy supply. Few raw materials in the world are available in such huge quantities as water, although the vast majority of this is salt water. Theoretically, therefore, there is an (almost) inexhaustible source of raw materials on earth from which hydrogen fuel could be produced. The challenge in extracting hydrogen from seawater, however, is to first desalinate the seawater before it can be used further. Using the Earth's freshwater supplies would contradict sustainable energy management.
New approaches to producing sustainably produced green hydrogen are trying to use green electricity as much as possible in the energy-intensive process.
Hydron B.V., a startup from the Netherlands, is working to produce hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from offshore wind power at sea. The major cost factor that currently makes this hydrogen too expensive for industrial production is the complex desalination of seawater. The researchers' goal therefore is to reduce the price of green hydrogen to 2 euros from the current 4 to 10 euros per kilogram. (pv-magazine)
One approach being pursued by researchers at the Leibniz Institute for New Materials (INM) is to desalinate seawater using a fuel cell and then produce hydrogen directly in the fuel cell using the fresh water obtained. Desalinating the water produces electricity that can then be reused. However, it is likely to be several years before these technologies are ready for use on an industrial scale.
https://www.industr.com/de/neuartiger-ansatz-soll-wasserstoff-aus-meerwasser-gewinnen-2597349, accessed 1/20/2022 at 8 a.m.
pv-magazine, article by Marian Willuhn, January 5th, 2022:
https://www.pv-magazine.de/2022/01/05/schaeffler-skaliert-elektrolyse-technologie-fuer-gruenen-wasserstoff-aus-meerwasser/, accessed 1/20/2022 at 8:40 a.m.